Titanium and it

Titanium and its applications:


Titanium has a density of just 4.505 kg per cubic metre, but combines this metallic "lightness" with a strength, especially in titanium alloys, considerably higher than aluminium alloys and comparable to the best structural steel. Conductivity of heat and electricity is low, and titanium retains its' properties in a range of approximately -270oC to +400oC. At near absolute zero titanium becomes superconductive. At the higher temperature limit, strength diminishes and oxidisation increases, limiting the range of applications at high temperatures. Titanium melts at about 1660 oC, boils at about 3287 oC.

The atomic weight of titanium is 47.9.

 Crystal Structure:

          α phase: Close-packed hexagonal; a = 0.295030 nm, c = 0.468312, 
                                                                                      c/a = 1.5873.

          β phase: Body-centered cubic, a = 0.332 nm at 900 oC.

 Mass Characteristics:

Atomic Weight: 47.9


          α phase: 4.507 g/cm3 at 20 oC.

          β phase: 4.35 g/cm3 at 885 oC.

Mechanical Properties:

Tensile Properties (Typical, at Room Temperature):

          Tensile Strength:            235 MPa

          0.2% Yield Strength:      140 MPa

          Elongation in 50 mm:       54%

          Minimum Bend Radius: <1t


          Ingot Melted From Electrolytic Titanium:    70 to 74 HB

          Ingot Melted From Iodide Titanium:            65 to 72 HB

          Velocity of Sound: 4970 m/s

Thermal Properties:

          Melting Point: 1668 + 10 oC

          Boiling Point: 3260 oC (estimated)

          Vapor Pressure (From 1587 to 1698 K)
          log P = 7.7960 - (24,644/T) - 0.000227 T
          (where P is in Pa and T is in K).                                                                               

          Phase Transformation Temperature: α to β, 882.5 oC

          Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: At 20 oC: 8.41 x 10-6/ oC.  

                                                    At 1000 oC: 10.1 x 10-8/ oC (estimated).

           Specific Heat:

          Below 13 K: Cp = 0.0706 + 5.43 x 10-4 T3

          Above Room Temperature: Cp = 669.0 - 0.037188 T - 1.080 x 107 T-2  
   (where Cp is in J/kg
K and T is in K)

                       Temperature, K                   Cp, kJ/kg K

                               50                                    0.0993

                               100                                  0.3002

                               200                                  0.4651

                               500                                   0.6072

Latent Heat of Fusion: 440 kJ/kg (estimated)

Latent Heat of Transformation: 91.8 kJ/kg (estimated)

Latent Heat of Vaporization: 9.83 MJ/kg (estimated)

Thermal Conductivity: 11.4 W/k . K at -240 oC

 Electrical Properties:

Electrical Resistivity: 420 nΩ . m at 20 o

Superconductivity (Critical Temperature): 0.37 to 0.56 K

Magnetic Properties:

Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume, at Room Temperature): 180 (+ 1.7) x 10-6 mks

Optical Properties:

Total Hemispherical Emittance: 0.30 at 710 oC


Because of its strength and light weight, titanium is used in metallic alloys and as a substitute for aluminium. Alloyed with aluminium and vanadium, titanium is used in aircraft for fire walls, outer skin, landing-gear components, hydraulic tubing, engine supports, compressor blades, discs, and housings of jet engines.

Titanium is also widely used in missiles and space capsules; the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo capsules were made largely of titanium. The relative inertness of titanium makes it available as a replacement for bone and cartilage in surgery and as a pipe and tank lining in the processing of foods. It is used in heat exchangers in desalination plants because of its ability to withstand salt-water corrosion. In metallurgy, titanium alloys are employed as deoxidizers and denitrogenizers to remove oxygen and nitrogen from molten metals.



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